Essay on Criminology Theories

In a society that is not perfect it would be very awkward to find only perfect people. There are always your good and your bads. No matter how much we try evil is always going to exist and nothing is going to change that. We can not make a society that will be greeted happily by everyone because there will always be those one of two who do not like it and will want to go against it. The reasons why one might turn bad is a complicated issue. One might just have the urge to do something that society considers to be bad so that they could show their rebellious side or others might just want to do it because of their status in society. Everyone has their own reasons and many researchers have been trying to explain why such epidemics of evil are still around. These researchers have come from different aspects of studies. Some place the reasons for crimes on biological, others on sociological and psychological. All in all, they all have different reasons into why people commit crimes.

The first criminology theory we are presented with is the theory of choice. It states that people decide whether to commit a crime or not by personal choice. They first have to weigh out their options. They take into considerations the risk that will be involved and their personal desires. If their personal desires and needs outweigh the risk factors then they will probably decide to do the crime. On the other hand, if the crime is too risky and they do not necessarily need to fulfill their desires then they will most probably decide not to commit the crime. Others might just decide to commit a crime because it would require less effort. Basically, crimes are a matter of choice and only we can decide what we do.

Biological theories have been broken up into three different areas. The first one is the biochemical factors. This theory says that crimes are committed because of biological abnormalities such as malnutrition or allergies. They have found that many criminal offenders have had a hormonal deficiency such as testosterone or the level of organic substances in the body. The next area was the neurological theories that relate brain activities to behaviors. They have found that people who have abnormal brain composition might have times where they have some sort of rage which will be hard to control. An example of brain dysfunctions would be anti-social behavior. The last area in the biological theory is the genetic abnormality area. This area practically says that the primary reasons for criminals are their genes. If the parent showed to have the same behavior as the child that committed the crime then there is genetic source for the crime. We could all assume that this isn’t really a good approach because many criminals learn behaviors either from friends or families they’ve seen do the same, it does not necessarily have to be hereditary.

The next approach is known by many people. It is the psychological theory and the main psychologist is Sigmund Freud. His psychoanalytic view says that problems we may encounter as grown adults may be from a difference in our personality. An example would be people with schizophrenia. We are driven by our unconscious thoughts is the main idea presented by Sigmund Freud’s research. Another aspect of the psychological theory is that we learn behaviors after we see the same behaviors done by adults. This is known as the social learning theory. It says that we model those we observe.

The most accurate and most recent of theories is the sociological theory. This theory practically says that crimes committed are socially oriented. The way the United States is stratified can account for why some people might answer to crimes. The United States has a large gap between the rich and the poor and the poor generations generally get passed on. This will make the growth of vulnerability grow and at the end force many of the lower class to interact in crimes in order for them to better themselves and get money. They are practically trying to compete with the upper class and it is seen impossible and committed would be an easy way of getting money. The social disorganization of the United States is what this theory says is to blame for crimes. The next area in the sociological theories is the social process theory. The social process theory does not think that poverty is to blame but sees the way we are raised and socially interacted with society as the prime factor. If a family does not pay much attention to the child and lets them do whatever they want then they’ll probably end up acting in unusual behaviors. The next theory has its basis from Darwin that only the strong will survive. It is the conflict theory and it blames the economic and political forces of society for crimes. It says that the justice system is seen as a form of controlling the poor from criminally behaving while helping the wealthy betters themselves. It’s saying that the justice system is one-sided and that only the wealthy get the better of it while leaving the poor without any justice. The last theory is the developmental theory. It states that the people who we live or hang around with influence us. If you hang out with a bunch of criminal then you would probably commit crimes yourself.

All these theories and there is only one I agree with and it is the choice theory. No matter the situation everyone has a choice. You can either deter to the life of crimes or make more of yourself by education. The problem I find in society today is that most people living in poverty and in aggressive homes usually get used to the way they live and really don’t want to change it. Then when they see how the other half lives then they will want that and seek to meet the same status but don’t really want to work for it. They need to show the world that just because you are from low class status doesn’t mean you can’t become a lawyer, doctor or one of those money making careers. They need to aim higher and stop belittling their abilities. They should make the choice to become something of themselves rather than taking the easy way out.

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